The 27 books of the New Testament provide a good picture of God's intention for his Church. The Greek work behind the word Church (transliterated, ekklesia) appears 114 times in the New Testament. The ESV translation team translated 106 of those uses as church and 8 as something else such as assembly or congregation. The Septuagint (or LXX) has nearly 100 uses from the Greek translation of the Hebrew and Aramaic Old Testament.
Interestingly, the Greek word behind church only appears three times in the Gospels, and only in Matthew for that matter. One usage appears in Matthew 16:13-20. The specific verse, Matthew 16:18, reads, "And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it" (ESV). The other two uses are found in Matthew 18:15-20 which reads,
“If your brother sins against you, go and tell him his fault, between you and him alone. If he listens to you, you have gained your brother. But if he does not listen, take one or two others along with you, that every charge may be established by the evidence of two or three witnesses. If he refuses to listen to them, tell it to the church. And if he refuses to listen even to the church, let him be to you as a Gentile and a tax collector. Truly, I say to you, whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed* in heaven. Again I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I among them” (ESV).In the first usage, Jesus provides some specific information. Jesus will (not maybe or might) build it. It will be built on either Peter's confession or the revelation of the Father or Peter himself or some kind of apostolic succession depending on your theological persuasion. And the gates of hell will not prevail against it. Trying plugging our definition of church in here. It doesn't work. It's strange.
The second and third uses of the word, church, are in context to sin and the proclamation of the gospel. If a brother sins against you, you are to point out his sin and hope that as a brother he would repent and see the gospel living and active in his life. If the brother does not hear this from you, you bring another believer and try again. If again this person refuses to repent of his sin and accept the truth of the gospel in his life, then you bring it to the church. Here the larger body of believers makes every attempt to restore this brother to the gospel, but if no headway is made, than the church is to assume this man is not a believer. They are to treat him like an unbeliever, continuing to preach the gospel to him hoping he may one day repent, be baptized, and profess an actual trust in Christ. Try out the definitions here and you'll find they just don't work.
Either of the above mentioned definitions of church are really strange if applied in these Scriptures. So it stands to reason that our definition of church as a building or a place where we commune with God is not exactly right.
The disciples probably didn't fully understand what Jesus was talking about in Matthew until they were filled with the Holy Spirit in Acts 2 and Christ started building his church through his people. It may have been unclear to Peter when Christ first mentioned it, but he seems to have a good grasp of the Church later in his life. In a letter to the elect exiles he wrote, "As you come to him [Jesus], a living stone rejected by men but in the light of God chosen and precious, you yourselves like living stones are being built up as a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ" (1 Peter 2:4-5, ESV).
Peter, it seems, is stating that the Church is made up of believers. Each one is like a living stone. So the Church is not so much a 'what' as it is a 'who.' If you're a believer, you don't go to Church, you are the Church. But you alone are not the entire Church; you are simply a stone among the many who to together are the Church.
*Photo by flickr.com user, "mlhradio" is registered under a creative commons license and use by permission.